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Henry Nottidge Moseley, 1844-1891, was a natural scientist and zoologist chosen for the Challenger expedition after distinguishing himself in the Honor School of Natural Science at Oxford. He fitted a state of the art zoology laboratory on the Challenger and brought great enthusiams for his subject to the voyage. He was reportedly a kind, friendly and sympathetic man. His account of the Challenger voyage, "Notes by a Naturalist on HMS Challenger" was considered unusually original and insightful.

Upon Challenger's return, Moseley worked up his findings while a fellow at Oxford. He received many honors for his work, including the Royal Medal of the Royal Society, to which he was also elected a Fellow.

He died in 1891 at 47, apparently exhausted by the rigors of fieldwork in anthropology, a consuming passion of his post-Challenger career.